在区块链兴起之前,“矿工”专指从事挖煤矿的工人,提到矿工,脑海里就会浮现出一群穿着背心,皮肤黝黑的工人拿着十字镐在矿山上努力挖掘的样子。


Before the rise of blockchain, "miner" refers to the workers who are engaged in coal mining. When it comes to miner, a group of dark workers in vests and with pickaxes are trying to dig in the mine.


区块链诞生之后“矿工”便有了全新的含义。例如,在比特币世界中的“矿工”是指的是参与维护比特币网络获得比特币收益的个人或组织。和传统的矿工不同的是,区块链领域的矿工具有更多的科技色彩,以及更轻松的工作环境。


After the birth of blockchain, "miner" has a new meaning. For example, in the bitcoin world, "miner" refers to the person or organization involved in maintaining the bitcoin network to obtain the benefits of bitcoin. Unlike the traditional miners, the miners in the blockchain field have more technological color and easier working environment.


挖矿是什么?






挖矿是增加数字货币供应的一个过程。挖矿同时还保护着数字货币系统的安全,防止欺诈交易,避免“双重支付”。矿工们通过为数字货币网络提供算力来换取获得对应数字货币奖励的机会。简单理解,挖矿的过程实际上是银行发币的过程,矿工除了发币之外,还承担了打包交易记账的工作。


Mining is a process of increasing the digital money supply. Mining also protects the security of the digital currency system, prevents fraudulent transactions, and avoids "double payments.". By providing computing power for the digital currency network, the miners exchange for the opportunity to obtain corresponding digital currency rewards. It is easy to understand that the process of mining is actually the process of issuing currency by the bank. In addition to issuing currency, the miner also undertakes the work of packing transaction bookkeeping.


矿工们验证每笔新的交易,并且将交易记录在总账本内。约每10分钟就会有一个新的区块被“挖掘”出来,将包含在区块内的每笔交易添加到总账本上的交易是“确认交易”,交易被确认后,新的拥有者才能使用他在交易中得到的比特币。


矿工在挖矿中会得到两种奖励:创建新的区块奖励和区块中交易的手续费。为了得到这些奖励,矿工们计算基于哈希加密算法的数学题,数学题的答案被包含在新区块里,作为矿工的工作证明,被称为“工作量证明”,俗称Pow挖矿。


The miners verify each new transaction and record it in the general ledger. Every 10 minutes or so, a new block will be "mined" out. The transaction that adds each transaction contained in the block to the general ledger is "confirmed transaction". After the transaction is confirmed, the new owner can use the bitcoin he gets in the transaction.


There are two rewards for miners in Mining: a reward for creating a new block and a fee for trading in the block. In order to get these rewards, the miners calculate the mathematical problems based on the hash encryption algorithm. The answers to the mathematical problems are included in the new block, which is known as the "proof of work" as the work proof of the miners, commonly known as POW consensus mechanism.






如何挖矿?






挖矿的本质原理是在矿机上运行挖矿程序,计算算法从而获得奖励。单个矿工的产出并不稳定,为了获得稳定的挖矿产出收益,于是出现了矿池。矿池是将矿工的矿机集中在一起。矿机越多,算力越强。在全网的总算力中,占据了一定比例的份额,这样就保证了稳定的挖矿产出。分配挖矿产出时,会根据单个矿工贡献给矿池的算力按比例分配,通常矿池会收取少量手续费。


The essential principle of mining is to run the mining program on the miner and calculate the algorithm to get the reward. The output of a single miner is not stable. In order to obtain a stable income from mining output, a mine pool appears. The ore pool is a collection of miners' mining machines. The more mining machines, the stronger the calculation power. In the total power of the whole network, it accounts for a certain proportion, so as to ensure a stable mining output. When allocating the mining output, it will be distributed in proportion according to the computing power contributed to the ore pool by a single miner, usually the ore pool will charge a small fee.

就像比特币的世界里,在没有中心化机构发行的情况下,中本聪设计了一套将比特币的分发设计成给比特币矿工的记账奖励:每一次记账权都由所有的矿工通过竞争挖矿产生,谁先找到正解,谁就能够得到奖励。而这个寻找正解的过程,我们称之为“挖矿”;参与“挖矿”的人,称为“矿工”。


Just like in the world of bitcoin, in the absence of centralized institutions, Nakamoto has designed a set of bookkeeping rewards that design the distribution of bitcoin to bitcoin miners: every bookkeeping right is generated by all miners through competitive mining, and whoever finds the right solution first can get the reward. The process of finding a positive solution is called "mining", and the people who participate in "mining" are called "miners".